Below is the current errata list for this textbook. These errata will be corrected in the next edition.


Page 162  Question 8  AIP GEN 2.2 page 44 & AIP GEN 3.5 para 17 Note 2 (1)

                                                            Is now 

                                      AIP GEN 2.2 page 43 & AIP GEN 3.5 para 17 Note 2 (1)


Page 164 Question 23  AIP ENR 1.1 para  4.3       Is now         AIP ENR 1.1 para



Page 156      AIP ENR 1.1 Is Now

                     AIP ENR 1.1 Is Now

Page 159     AIP ENR 1.1 Is Now

                     AIP ENR 1.1 Is Now

Page 160     AIP ENR 1.1 Is Now

                     AIP ENR 1.1 Is Now

Page 164 Question 23  AIP ENR 1.1 Is Now


I have added two new pages to the met book.  They can be downloaded here. Met update


Page 173 Answer to Question No 15 Test 1 should be (b) not (d).


Page 163 - Revision 1 Question 12  (d) "The wind at 5000 feet pressure height is from 210 True at 18 knots with a temperature of -3C" should read "The wind at 5000 ft AMSL is from 210 True at 18 knots with a temperature of -3C


         The Updated pages to include the Graphical Area Forcasts and the Grid Point Wind

         and Temperature Forcasts   GAF_Update.pdf


Since Air Services have made yet another change without notice to the references in the AIP, some of the references in this book will need to be amended.  The changes affect mostly Chapter 3 on flight planning and in particular the conditions that impose the requirement for planning an alternate.

For example a reference to AIP ENR 1.1 para now becomes AIP ENR 1.1 para  Note that the first 8 becomes 11.  Nothing else changes and there is no change to the actual text of the document.  Wherever a reference says AIP ENR 1.1 para 8.8 followed by further digits indicating sub paragraphs, the change required is to the first 8.  So the reference AIP ENR 1.1 para 8.8 becomes AIP ENR 1.1 para 11.8 followed by the same digits indicating sub paragraphs.

The changes will be included in the next print of the book.


Operational Met Questions.  Question 19.  In older versions of the book, it says that ARFORs give information for aircraft at or below 20,000 feet.  That has now been changed to 10,000 feet.  AIP GEN 3.5 para 5.3.2.


Important note concerning the latest AIP (2nd March 2017). AIP References


The Bureau of Meteorology has advised that as of November 2016, Area Forecasts will apply from the surface to 10,000 feet AMSL, not 20.000 feet AMSL as was the case previously.


Page 33.  Answers to Exercise GM 2.  There appears to be a problem with the alignment of the answers and the explanations.  The answers are correct but the explanations have slipped out of sync with the answers.  The corrected page is available below.

Met page 33


There was some confusion about the terms 'horizontal' and 'vertical' wind shear. According to the Manual of Meteorology, horizontal wind shear is wind shear encountered when the aircraft's flight path is horizontal. That is, the shear is produced by a sudden change of speed between two air flows moving vertically. The worst case would be one air stream moving vertically upwards while the adjacent one moves vertically downwards such as in a thunderstorm cell. That's called horizontal wind shear nowadays.

Vertical wind shear is wind shear encountered when the aircraft's flight path has a vertical component such as climbing or descending. That is, the shear is produced by a sudden change of speed between two air flows moving horizontally. An example would be cold air at the surface that is almost stationary with a fast moving warmer air stream running across the top of the stationary layer such as is the case in a strong surface inversion.

The earlier versions of the Met book has them the other way round - which was the accepted definition when I did Met!!


Practice Test 2, Q39: The answer should be [a] vertical windshear.

Vertical wind shear is a change in horizontal wind speed and/or direction with a change in height. Horizontal wind shear is a change in horizontal wind speed and/or direction with horizontal distance.


Extra text has been added to Thunderstorm Development on Page 104.

Warm moist air that is sucked into the storm's leading edge becomes unstable and continues to rise within the cell.  This updraft reaches vertical speeds as high as 10,000 feet per minute and often reaches heights above 40,000 feet.  The rapid ascent actually accelerates towards the top of the storm where its inertia causes the updraft to overshoot the point where its temperature equals that of the environment air.  This produces an 'overshoot dome' on the top of the storm cell that is clearly visible in satellite photos [Fig 6.20a].

As the updraft ceases, the top of the storm begins to spread horizontally to form the familiar 'anvil' top.  The air in the updraft cools and begins to sink, beginning a rapid downward plunge which is encouraged by friction with falling raindrops and hailstones.  In the unstable environment of the storm cell, this downdraft rapidly gains momentum and leaves the base of the cloud as a forward flank downdraft.  The air in this downdraft is cool and moist and, as it hits the ground and spreads out before the cell, it is felt as a cool blast of air - the first dramatic effect of the approaching storm.

At the middle and upper levels, dry environment air is sucked into the sides of the cell where it also sinks and suffers adiabatic warming.  This air also sinks rapidly and leaves the storm as a rear flank downdraft.  It also hits the surface and spreads horizontally to produce a warmer drier blast of air following the forward flank downdraft.


Latest issue of CPL MET, page 3.  Diagram showing the layers of the atmosphere and associated text has been amended.  The text should say that the tropospause is about 60,000 feet over the EQUATOR and about 30,000 feet over the POLES.


Page 6.35.  Question 21 answer should read "SE Trades are cool winds moving north west"

Page 7.23. Definition of AIRMET.  Change 18,500 to 20,000

Page 7.31.  Question 19 answer [b] is now 20,000


Page 7.3. First paragraph third last line should read 'With the exception of TCU and CB, cloud types are not mentioned in reports or forecasts.' 

Page 7.3.  Reference AIP GEN 3.5 para 14 is now AIP GEN 3.5 para 13. 

Page 7.27.  TAF at the bottom of the page, the times should be BECMG 2301/2303.


Page 6.14, bottom of the page after 'CLEAR ICE' delete reference to altocumulus.


Page 7.31 Question No 19.  Choice [b] should be FL185.  A recent AIP amendment changed 10,000 ft to FL 185.


CPL MET pages 7.11 and 7.12.  Automatic METAR.  When the visibility was reported by an automatic sensor, the letters NDV [no directional variation] were used  to indicate that the visibility had been measured within the limited field of an instrument and therefore could not be absolutely relied upon as being an accurate report in all directions.  The letters NDV are no longer used in these messages, although the limitation still applies.


All references to RASH (Rain Showers) have been changed to read SHRA. This reflects the latest decode for "showers of rain" in the AIP.
Please note: the textbook includes copies of TAFs from CASA's own VFR Day Booklet. These have not been changed and still use the old RASH abbreviation.


Update page 7.2: A correction has been made to the definition of VRB used when describing wind in meteorological messages. VRB is used when one specific wind direction cannot be determined i.e. winds less than 3kt or stronger winds with varying direction (e.g. VRB30KT) such as would be expected with the passage of a thunderstorm.

The description of visibility reporting has also been changed to reflect the latest updates of the AIP. If the minimum visibility is less than 5000m and less than the prevailing visibility, it will be reported as prevailing visibility followed by minimum visibility and directional information e.g. 6000 2000SE.


The November 2011 AIP update has returned the calculation of TAF QNH and temperatures to a much simpler presentation. Now instead of TAF values for QNH and Temperature applying 90 minutes either side of HH, HH+3, HH+6, HH+9, you can simply linearly interpolate between the four spot values as required. (See AIP GEN 3.5 12.16.2 and 12.17.3). This change affects the description of TAF interpretation on pages 7.14 - 7.15.

Consider the following TAF:

TAF YBMK 071931Z 0720/0808 11013KT 9999 FEW012 SCT025 
FM0802 11008KT 9999 SCT020 
TEMPO 0802/0808 SCT009 BKN012
RMK T 26 23 23 22 Q 1013 1015 1016 1015

At 2000 the QNH and temperature are forecast to be 1013 and +26°C respectively. At 2300 the QNH and temperature are forecast to be 1015 and +23°C respectively. At 0200 the QNH and temperature are forecast to be 1016 and +23°C respectively. At 0500 the QNH and temperature are forecast to be 1015 and +22°C respectively.

For arrivals at other times, you should interpolate between the given values.  In most cases this will be a simple task because the values rarely change by more than one or two units. To get the QNH or temperature during the last three hour period, you would need to obtain the next TAF and interpolate as necessary between the 05 on the current TAF values and the 08 values on the new TAF.


Question on page 5.9: The direction of the gradient wind at Perth is towards the south east (it is a north westerly wind). The direction of the gradient wind in Darwin is towards the south east (it is a north westerly wind).
Question on page 5.10: The QNH in Perth is 1012 and not 1022.


On page 7.2 of the book it describes VRB wind as "...average speed less than 5kts". AIP GEN3.5 para 12.6.4(a) has been changed and now defines VRB as "less than 3kts".


CPL Met Questions References Updates (23.06.2010) (PDF 63kb)

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